The Tower is often linked with torture and execution. However, the only definite information about torture in the Tower dates from the 16th century. The use of torture was officially denied, even though its use was common knowledge.
Between 1540 and 1640 81 warrants authorising torture were issued. In 74 cases this was to take place in London and 48 specify the Tower.
The rack stretched the body until the joints were dislocated and then separated from the rest of the body.
Although a report from 1583 instructs those using the rack ‘to use it in as charitable manner as such as thing might be,’ it was feared by prisoners and was sometimes only needed as a threat to get them to confess and to pass on information about co-conspirators.
Another fearful torture device was the Scavenger’s Daughter invented in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir William Skevington, Lieutenant of the Tower of London. It compressed the body so much it could force blood from the nose and ears.
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Harry Brearley, chief metallurgist of Thomas Firth & Sons of Sheffield, England, discovers martensitic chromium stainless steel in 1913 while seeking a corrosion-resistant alloy for gun barrels for the British Government.