Chinese Mace with spherical head decorated with silver and shaft decorated with shagreen.

China

Many military inventions came from China, including the crossbow and perhaps the most important of them all, gunpowder. Chinese arms and armour could also be classed as great works of art.


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Mass-produced steel

The first mass-production process for making steel was invented by Englishman Henry Bessemer. Rejected by the British his process was adopted by the German gunmaker Alfred Krupp, who became the most advanced armaments manufacturer in Europe.